‘Fifty shades of green’ – navigating the maze of ethical investments is no easy task, says Bestinvest07 October 2013
It’s that time of year when the ethical investment industry seeks to raise public awareness of the ability to invest in a socially responsible manner through its National Ethical Investment Week (13-19 October) campaign. Yet despite the growth in recent years of areas such ethical consumerism and eco-tourism, the data suggests ethical investment has failed to make a decisive break through into the mainstream. According to figures from the Investment Management Association (IMA), funds under management for ethical funds were £8.6 billion at the end of August 2013 and their share of total funds under management was just 1.2%, the same as this time last year.
The Marmite of investing
Jason Hollands, Managing Director at Bestinvest says: “Ethical investing is like Marmite, people seem to either love the idea or loathe it, and all too often discussion of the subject seems to revolve solely around the question as to whether investing ethically will result in lower returns. However, that misses the point: some investors have a sincerely held desire not to have their money invested in tobacco or those companies which test their products on animals irrespective of the returns those areas may offer. Ethical investing exists to provide these savers with a choice.”
“The trouble is that nothing is straightforward with ethical investment. It is an umbrella term for a smorgasbord of strategies and involves an inherent degree of subjectivity. In fact, the industry can’t even settle on a name for it. Over the last two decades the ethical investment industry has variously badged itself as SRI (Socially Responsible Investment), ESG (Environmental, Social & Governance) investing, SEE (Social, Environmental & Ethical) investing, Sustainable Investing and latterly Responsible Investing,” said Hollands.
Bestinvest explains that the range of the funds on offer include traditional ethically screened funds, which encompass a multitude of concerns and filter out “sin” sectors (tobacco, alcohol, arms and gambling) as well as individual stocks that are evaluated as unacceptable; funds focused on identifying companies that are ‘best of breed’ for corporate responsibility across a range of industries (which in the case of the Premier Ethical fund extends to a 3% holding in pub operator Mitchell & Butlers); funds which emphasise ‘engagement’ with companies on social, environmental and corporate governance issues, and; environmentally-friendly thematic funds and niche products focused on alternative energy stocks.
What are your red-line issues?
“While it is common to categorise funds under broad banners such as “light green”, “mid green” and “dark green” these are inadequate in conveying the important differences and nuances between funds. Potential investors need to decide what the key issues of concern to them are - in particular whether they want a broad based ethical approach or a more narrow focus on the environment - and then select a fund with a set of policies that most closely matches their concerns. And it is here that there can be important differences in the detail,” explained Hollands.
He highlights the emotive area of animal welfare where some funds exclude all companies that test products on animals, such as Kames and Standard Life, but most are allowed to invest in companies that do so for purposes of research into the treatment and cure of disease. As the table in the appendix shows, GlaxoSmithKline is a common top five holding in UK equity ethical funds.
Bestinvest singles out the Kames range of ethical funds as the most suitable for vegans as it also excludes producers and retailers of meat, poultry, fish and dairy. In contrast, Jupiter Ecology has a long-standing holding in Cranswick, a leading supplier of free range pork with a strong record of managing its environmental impact.
While animal testing for medical discovery purposes is an example of how there can be very different views between ethically minded investors, Bestinvest also argues that beyond a few sectors such as tobacco and gambling most companies do not neatly fit into a black and white definition of ethical or unethical but sit somewhere in between. Perhaps contrary to the expectations of some these funds invariably hold large mainstream companies such as Vodafone, Royal Dutch Shell, HSBC, Lloyds Bank and GlaxoSmithKline. The universe of stocks open to ethical funds are chosen on the basis of an often finely balanced evaluation, a role performed in some cases by a separate committee tasked with reviewing and developing policy. For example, in the case of the oldest UK ethical funds, the Stewardship range, their committee was chaired by Revered Justin Welby, up until his recent appointed as Archbishop of Canterbury. Ethical funds are therefore unlikely to please all of their investors, all of the time. In many cases policies are not set in stone but will evolve over time so it may be necessary to periodically check whether the fund still meets your red-line criteria.
Hollands concluded: “It is also important to be aware that ethical funds will perform differently from mainstream funds, as they will generally have a lower weighting to commodities than the broader market as well as defensive sectors such as tobacco and drinks. This means they have a higher tracking error. Over the last five years we found the average ranking of UK equity ethical funds was 56th percentile but with a generally broad dispersion between the best performers, such as Standard Life UK Ethical, which returned 96% and the worst, Scottish Widows Ethical, which delivered a 25% return. This suggests that while it is undoubtedly a challenge to deliver out performance with a more restricted universe, underperformance isn’t inevitable either. ”
Bestinvest’s Guide to Ethical and Green Investing is available to download free-of-charge at www.bestinvest.co.uk/ethical
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Current or historical yields quoted should not be considered reliable indications of future returns. The value of investments, and the income derived from them, can go down as well as up and you can get back less than you originally invested. This article does not constitute personal advice. If you are in doubt as to the suitability of an investment please contact one of our advisers.
Due to their nature, specialist funds can be subject to specific sector risks. Investors should ensure they read all relevant information in order to understand the nature of such investments and the specific risks involved. Please note that ethical funds may, by definition, have a limited investment universe; this may affect performance.
*Examples of financials and oil & gas exposure on leading UK equity ethical funds and top five holdings:
Oil & Gas
|Top Holdings||5 Yr Percentile|
|Aberdeen Responsible UK Equity||15.94%||12.52%||Royal Dutch Shell, Unilever, BHP Billiton, Centrica, GlaxoSmithKline||51|
|Alliance Trust UK Ethical||10.05%||5.72%||ARM, Kingspan, Prudential, BT,
|Alliance Trust SF UK Growth||8.45%||4.59%||GlaxoSmithKline, Kingspan, BT,
|CIS Sustainable Leaders||21.32%||1.02%||Vodafone, Lloyds Bank, BT,
GlaxoSmithKline, St. Modwen
|Ecclesiastical Amity UK||16.96%||3.15%||Dunelm, Vodafone, Dechra
Pharma, Halma, GlaxoSmithkline
|F&C Stewardship Growth||23.36%||6.51%||HSBC, Vodafone, BG,
GlaxoSmithKline, Legal & General
|F&C Stewardship Income||25.70%||4.87%||Vodafone, HSBC, GlaxoSmithKline,
BG, Legal & General
|Henderson Global Care UK Income||29.74%||2.52%||HSBC, GlaxoSmithKline, Vodafone,
BT, National Grid
|Jupiter Responsible Income||21.35%||6.95%||HSBC, GlaxoSmithKline, Vodafone,
Lloyds Bank, Rio Tinto
|Kames Ethical Equity||27.73%||5.09%||Vodafone, Prudential, Reed
Elsevier, Rightmove, Schroders
|Legal & General Ethical (tracker)||25.61%||6.55%||Vodafone, BG, Lloyds Bank, Tesco,
|Premier Ethical||24.82%||3.76%||Vodafone, GlaxoSmithKline, Rio
Tinto, BG, WPP
|Scottish Wids Environmental Inv||23.67%||0.53%||Vodafone, GlaxoSmithKline, HSBC,
Prudential, Ashtead Group
|Scottish Widows Ethical||26.78%||8.35%||Vodafone, HSBC, Prudential, BG,
|Sovereign Ethical*||18.67%||8.87%||HSBC, Vodafone, Royal Dutch Shell,
GlaxoSmithKline, Rio Tinto
|Standard Life UK Ethical||20.04%||6.33%||Vodafone, Barclays, Standard
Chartered, BG, Ashtead
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